Hotspot best practices

The regulations that apply to amateur radio—including use of
frequencies and control of our stations—also apply to our use of
personal, low-power hotspots. It’s our responsibility to understand and
adhere to those regulations. I think this is an issue worth thinking
about so that we all can continue to enjoy the use of our personal,
low-power hotspots in a responsible manner that both respects other
users of the same frequencies and adheres to the regulations.

  1. Hotspots and control operator responsibilities
    1. Pi-Star is a versatile system
    2. Part 97 regulations
    3. Real-world application
    4. More information
  2. Digital radio courtesy
  3. Using U.S.A. state talkgoups

1. Hotspots and control operator responsibilities

My personal practice is that I power on my personal, low-power
hotspots only when I’m monitoring and in control of them, and adhere to
my local band and frequency use plans.

Disclaimer: These are my personal notes and opinions based
on my experience as a non-technical user playing around with personal,
low-power hotspots, as well as by learning from what others are sharing.
While I’m definitely not an expert in this area, I’ve learned a few
things I think are worth sharing, first when studying for my Technician
and General licenses, next through an interesting and lengthy email
exchange I had with a state frequency manager, and finally via a robust
and ongoing discussion I’ve been having with some hotspot enthusiasts I
know. If anything needs correcting, please let me know.

1-1. Pi-Star is a versatile system

Pi-Star can be used for operating personal, low-power hotspots (more
accurately called personal access points), as well as mid-power
hotspots, and even full-power repeaters.

Just because an option exists in Pi-Star doesn’t necessarily mean it
should be used with a personal, low-power hotspot; some of the options
are designed for use with repeaters. In addition, repeater operators
are allowed to operate in ways that personal, low-power hotspot users
aren’t, for example, a repeater operator is permitted to utilize
automatic control options, while a user of a personal, low-power hotspot
isn’t. In addition, while many of the features in Pi-Star are
universally useful, some features may apply in some countries but not

1-2. Part 97 regulations

In the U.S., there are a couple Part 97 regulations to be aware of:

  • 97.7 – When transmitting, each amateur station must have a control operator.
  • 97.109 – Station control. (a) Each amateur station
    must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being
    locally controlled, the control operator must be at the control point.

1-3. Real-world application

So what is and isn’t okay when we’re using our personal, low-power
hotspots? Here are a few example scenarios I’ve thought about in which
the hotspot is powered on, but the control operator is not present at
the control point, for example, the hotspot is on, and it and your radio
are in your shack, but you have gone out to dinner or are sleeping

Note: While I personally prefer performing the more robust
manual Pi-Star updates on my personal, low-power hotspots, I’ve heard
that some people prefer the automated overnight updates, so these
scenarios take that into consideration.

Most likely okay – Hotspot powered on with:

  1. No digital modes enabled (DMR, D-STAR, YSF, etc.)
  2. The hotspot Node Type set to Private

In this scenario, the hotspot would not transmit, but would be able to receive automated overnight updates.

Probably okay – Hotspot powered on with:

  1. DMR mode enabled
  2. A BrandMeister server selected
  3. No static talkgroups set up
  4. Not linked to any talkgroups
  5. The hotspot Node Type set to Private

I think this scenario is probably okay as long as you have reasonable
control of your radio that has your callsign, for example, even if
you’re not present at your control station, at least your radio is off
and secured in your house or locked vehicle. This is another scenario in
which the hotspot would not transmit, but would be able to receive the
automated overnight updates.

Probably not okay – Hotspot powered on with:

  1. DMR mode enabled
  2. A BrandMeister server selected
  3. No static talkgroups set up
  4. Not linked to any talkgroups
  5. The hotspot Node Type set to Public

In this scenario, anyone who might somehow know or discover the
hotspot’s frequency would be able to use their radio with their own
callsign to link and transmit via the hotspot without you necessarily
being able to monitor and, if necessary, shut down the transmission.

Most likely not okay – Hotspot powered on:

  1. DMR mode enabled
  2. A BrandMeister server selected
  3. At least one static talkgroups set up or one linked talkgroup
  4. The hotspot Node Type set to Private or Public

In this scenario, the hotspot can transmit anything it receives from
the internet, without you necessarily being able to monitor and, if
necessary, shut down the transmission.

Node Type

The Node Type determines whether radios with callsigns (D-STAR, YSF),
CCS7 IDs (DMR, P25), or NXDN IDs other than what is entered in the
Pi-Star General Configuration Node Callsign, CCS7/DMR ID, and NXDN ID
can access the hotspot. When selecting this, keep in mind the
regulations in your country pertaining to the control operator function.
For a personal hotspot in the U.S., you can set this to
Public, but unless you actually intend to allow radios with other
callsigns, CCS7 IDs, or NXDN IDs to access the hotspot, it may be best
to leave it set to Private.

Note: The Node Type setting controls each mode’s SelfOnly setting in Expert Editor > MMDVMHost.

1-4. More information

See the regulations governing amateur radio in your country, for example, in the U.S., see CFR Title 47: Part 97 – Amateur Radio Service. See also your country’s band plan and your local frequency use plan, for example, in the U.S. State of Colorado: U.S. Band Plan and Colorado Frequency Use Plans.

2. Digital radio courtesy

When we’re using our digital radios with repeaters, reflectors, and talkgroups, it’s important to keep a few things in mind:

  1. All the repeaters, reflectors, and talkgroups are shared resources.
    In order for other hams to link to, identify themselves as being on the
    resource, or unlink from it, it’s necessary for there to be a gap in the
    transmissions. When you’re having a longer chat, it’s good form to
    pause for a few seconds between transmissions to give other hams a
    chance to access the resource. If you transmit back and forth rapidly on
    one of the busy shared resources, you’re going to frustrate other hams!
  2. If you’re on a much used DMR talkgroup, like 3100, and you want to
    have a longer chat, consider moving to one of the TAC channels where
    ragchewing is allowed (313 – 319) to continue your chat.
  3. There can be a slight delay after pressing PTT before the
    transmission initiates. It’s a good idea to wait a full second (say
    “one-one-thousand”) before starting to speak so that the beginning of
    your transmission doesn’t get cut off.

3. Using U.S.A. state talkgoups

From the BrandMeister Network wiki > United States of America page:
“State talk groups should be used as call channels or short conversations of 15 minutes or less. Some states have chat or tac talk groups of their own that you may used for longer discussions. Many repeaters carry their local statewide talk groups as static talk groups. Please be courteous and remember how many repeaters you may be keying up when using a statewide talk group. If you are using another statewide talk group and are not in communications with someone else in that state, please be courteous and move to a different talk group.”

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